Forum Posts

EAMS Global
Feb 01, 2019
In Physical Asset Management
What is a Work Order Priority? The Maintenance Planner faces a daily process of balancing out the resources available based on the demand from Operations and Maintenance on how to achieve the best outcomes in terms of risk to productive output, quality, safety and waste in the daily management of the plant or manufacturing, process facility. The initial action in determining how to establish the priority for each Maintenance Work Order is to establish what is a Work Order Priority? Almost every Computerised Maintenance Management System (CMMS) contains a field where you can set the work order priority, but few define exactly how it is to be used (which in turn determines what it should be). While there are a number of different interpretations of Work Order Priority that are possible, our view is that the Work Order Priority should represent an indication of the level of business risk that relates to the condition, fault or failure that has been raised by a Work order. The higher the overall risk associated with the fault or failure, then the higher the priority. Risk is generally represented as the combination of Consequences and Likelihood, so when assessing the priority of a work order, the following questions should be asked: If we do not perform this work: what is the impact on quality, safety, environmental conditions, energy and waste? what happens if the equipment suffers a functional failure, in what way would this impact on the ability to meet the output or production planned, and how large would that impact be? how likely would the equipment be to suffer that functional failure within the next (predetermined) time period? The first and second of these questions assesses the potential consequences of the likelihood of not performing the work; with absolute consideration of safety, quality, etc. and then the impact on the equipment, and the third question assesses the likelihood of those consequences occurring. While absolute priority must be given to the safety, quality, etc. needs the other conditions can then be evaluated using a risk matrix similar to the one shown in Figure 1. Applying Work Order Priorities in Practice Now we have looked at the principals how do we do this in practice? Assessing Consequences The phrase “functional failure” in the context used above comes from the methods defined in Reliability Centred Maintenance. What this means is that we first need to understand which function(s) are likely to be impacted by the fault or defect. RCM tells us that equipment can have many functions in addition to its primary function. For example, a pump, in addition to its primary function of being able to pump fluid from one location to another at a specified minimum rate, may have secondary functions that relate to Safety, Protection, Control, Containment etc. Further, RCM tells us that equipment can suffer a functional failure, in some cases, not just by failing to operate at all, but by failing in such a way that, although still operating, it fails to meet one or more specified minimum performance standards. So instead of operating at 20 m3/hr it has dropped to 15 m3/h. So careful thought is required when assessing each Work Order to understand which functions and associated functional failures may be impacted by the fault. Second, in order to ensure consistency in prioritisation among different equipment items, we need to understand the impact of the possible functional failure on overall business objectives. Bear in mind here that by “objective” we are using the (ISO 9001:2015) definition of an objective as being a “result to be achieved”. Those objectives could relate to the achievement of target performance levels in the areas of production throughput (failure to meet production targets), costs (failure to meet cost targets), or risk (failure to meet safety, environmental or social responsibility targets). So, when assessing consequences, it is important to be thorough, and it is also important to take a “big picture” view of the nature of these consequences on the overall business. Assessing Likelihood Assessing the likelihood of failure requires you to determine, in advance and in a consistent manner, the time period over which the likelihood of failure is to be assessed. For example, are we assessing the likelihood that the equipment will fail within the next week, within the next month, the next year, or some other time period? The correct answer will depend on your situation, but we would suggest that the time period should be consistent with your work order scheduling horizon. If, for example, you issue a work schedule for the maintenance execution team to complete once per week, then the timeframe for assessment of likelihood should also be weekly. Bear in mind that if the nature of the fault is such that the equipment will continue to degrade, then the likelihood of failure will increase as time passes, and so the work order priority should be reassessed periodically to take account of this. Too many organisations, in our experience, determine the work order priority when the work order is first raised, and then never reassess that priority (at least until, unfortunately, the equipment fails “unexpectedly”). Who Should Set Work Order Priorities? As you can see from the discussion so far, setting the priority for a work order requires knowledge of: The likelihood of impact on the safety, quality, environment, energy usage, etc. The current condition of the asset for which the work order has been raised The likelihood speed of progression from current condition to a functionally failed state The potential impact of this failed state on operational and organisational objectives, given the current situation regarding overall plant status, production plans, stockpile levels, potential workarounds etc. It is unlikely that any one person will have sufficient knowledge of all of these items to make a fully informed decision regarding work order priority. For this reason, we highly recommend that work order priorities be established jointly by maintenance and production/operations personnel, each of whom will bring different knowledge and skills to the decision-making process. Most likely, the production and maintenance representatives will be front-line supervisors, as they have the most intimate knowledge of the plant, but higher-level management supervision and/or involvement is likely also to be of value, in order to ensure that decisions align with overall management priorities. Work Order Priorities and Scheduling Work Orders The next question to ask is how Work Order priorities are applied?. Can we, or should we, always schedule the highest priority work orders for completion first? Regrettably, the answer is “no”. We should, however, as a general rule, start work on the highest priority work orders first, but when the work is actually completed will depend on a number of other factors. For example, if the work order requires spare parts that are not in stock, then there is little point in scheduling the work for completion until such time as the parts are actually available. For long lead-time items, this may be several weeks in the future. High work order priority may, however, indicate that acquisition of these spare parts is expedited with some urgency, which also raises a cost consideration. Similarly, if, to perform the work, the equipment needs shutting down, then the work will need to be scheduled for a time that has minimum overall impact on plant objectives, and performance of this work may be completed at the same time as a number of other work orders that require equipment to be shut down. This then also raises the question of contracting-out some of the work due to insufficient internal resources. Sometimes we may also schedule work for completion that is assessed as “lower” priority using the risk matrix approach. For example, from time to time Work Orders can be raised for Maintenance personnel to execute those that are not directly related to impending equipment failures. These are often proactive tasks that relate either to equipment service or improvement activities which are intended to improve overall equipment reliability. But note, for example, that while fixing machine guards is generally not done to prevent impending failure, however, if assessed using a risk matrix would definitely be rated always as high priority as it impacts on safety which overrides other lower priority tasks. We hope you’ll find the points we’ve raised helpful in your planning and scheduling of Work Orders.
How to Prioritise Maintenance Work Orders content media
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EAMS Global
Nov 04, 2018
In Total Productive Maint
GET THE BENEFIT FROM YOUR OPERATORS OF IMPROVED UPTIME AND THROUGHPUT Autonomous maintenance (AM) is performed by the operators and not by dedicated maintenance technicians. It is a crucial component of Total Productive Maintenance (TPM). The core idea of autonomous maintenance is to provide the operators with more responsibility and allow them to carry out basic preventive maintenance tasks. Total Productive Maintenance (TPM) was developed by Japanese companies, extending the existing concept of Total Quality Control (TQC) with the principles of preventive and predictive maintenance programs. There are numerous examples that have been published demonstrating the impact Operator related maintenance have had in improving throughput time, uptime and quality – usually seen as OEE. With conventional maintenance programs, a machine or a section of equipment can run until it fails or reaches a preventive maintenance/condition based date. The maintenance department is then responsible for handling/fixing it. In contrast, autonomous maintenance allows machine operators to carry out simple maintenance work (lubrication, safety checks, fixture and cover security tightening/securing, cleaning and inspection) to act as “first-line” maintenance personnel in preventing breakdowns and reacting faster if a certain failure has been detected using the “eyes and ears” of seeing and listening to the motion, ‘rhythm’ of the machine.  Since TPM gives operators much more responsibilities, planned (kaizen) dedicated training is required as well as some modifications on the machines to ease operations of cleaning and maintenance. This will significantly increase the operators’ skills level and helps them better understand how to maintain and even improve the equipment. What Actions Are Expected from an Operator Performing Autonomous Maintenance? Autonomous maintenance requires operators to develop and master certain skills: Detect abnormalities and contribute to countermeasures to reduce problems; Understand the functions and the components of the machines and detect the causes of abnormalities; Recognize possible quality issues and identify their causes. The machine operator should be able through familiarization with operating the equipment to provide fast and reliable initial diagnosis and troubleshoot in a certain number of failure cases. The best way to transfer knowledge of how to manage this continuous learning experience is through brief one-point learning sessions and over time an entire methodical implementation program. 5S - The Starting Point for Operator Based or Autonomous Maintenance The main objective of 5S is to create a culture or mindset of discipline and orderliness, while the whole work area is cleaned and organized. Autonomous maintenance, on the other hand, aims to ensure that operators clean and inspect their equipment to prevent deterioration and failures. It should be clearly understood that the two initiatives are very different. The area of overlap is where equipment-related problems need to be fixed (e.g. oil leaks or product spillage) in order to keep the area clean. This is normally done as part of 5S without any transfer of maintenance responsibilities to operators. On the other hand, deep cleaning and tagging of the equipment is the first step in a long process of establishing maintenance skills and responsibility among operators. It is very important to first establish general cleanliness, tidiness and discipline in the work area through the implementation of 5S, before introducing autonomous maintenance. 5Soften naturally leads into autonomous maintenance as a seamless process, as shown below. While autonomous maintenance is implemented in a pilot area, 5S should be rolled out across the organization as soon as possible, to ensure that everyone is involved and to create a general culture of discipline throughout the organization. 1. Initial Cleaning and Inspection The initial cleaning of the machines is essential for high-quality maintenance. It is usually performed by all involved members of the production, maintenance and engineering team and includes the thoroughly cleaning of the equipment and surroundings.  The purpose is to ensure that the machines’ performance is fully restored by identifying and eliminating all signs of deterioration. Leak detection; Control of loosened bolts; Lubrication; Detection of oil or transmission leaks from gaskets, oil spray from lubrication systems, cutting oil leaking from pipe joints, blocked drainage points; Correction of defective items; Removal of process waste and product from the air intakes, lubrication points of motors/gearboxes, fans, compressors. Removal of dust and dirt on operating panels, inspection and safety covers; Loose covers on electrical panels allowing dust/contamination of relays and circuit breakers, clogged air filters non-working electrical cooling fans Prevention of fire in the waste and dust accumulated in inaccessible places; Faster jig and die/tooling changeover and better precision adjustments capability when change-overs occur on production lines. The process and the results can be written down in a SOP and uploaded to the CMMS/Production SOP. This would ease the traceability of the detected faults. Furthermore, next time when performing initial cleaning, the operator can directly call-up the information and simply follow the steps. 2. Eliminating Contamination for Maintenance After the initial cleaning has been performed and the equipment has been restored again, it is very important to make sure that it doesn’t deteriorate again. This happens by improving accessibility for cleaning and maintenance. This is important. If the area where contamination builds-up can’t be reached then the continued operator maintenance cannot be carried out. Standards must also be generated for ensuring machine lock-out when access to certain areas is required where safety is the overriding criteria. At this point, the machine operators can be given the freedom to control the root causes of contamination directly at source, especially given the fact that they know the machine better and were the ones who performed the initial cleaning. This step also considers all possible safety issues that could happen during autonomous maintenance. Cleaning a running machine is quite dangerous and the shift changing of operators only increases the difficulties. The maintenance leader should take into account the following possible solutions: Maintain cleaning standards. The most serious problems cannot be repaired immediately and may request the extended shutdown of the machine. Other detected issues such as leaks or damaged parts can be fixed. Achieving lasting cleanliness by avoiding soiling. The main causes for machine soiling should be eliminated gradually. The common solutions include high-quality sealing and covers. However, some causes for contamination may request more serious investment as dust extractors or sediment pumps. Promoting cleanliness, when stressing the topic during inspection operations and machine maintenance. Operators should be shown how to facilitate the planned inspections by gradually eliminating any inaccessible zones. Encouraging operators to keep the workplace in order. Very often, fixing a problem is delayed because of a missing specific machine tool. 3. Develop Standards for Cleaning, Lubrication and Inspection The establishment of standards for operations of cleaning, inspection and lubrication starts from the current maintenance documentation and follows the suggested lubrication and inspection schedule. This is the step, which can be individually ‘tailored’ to the operators of each machine. In this phase, the core team develops its own standards showing the items to be cleaned and/or lubricated, the methods to be used and the responsibilities to be assigned. In this case, two complementary methods should be followed: With non-critical machines, operators can be trained in-house to follow the established general standards and then given the opportunity to settle their own rules, led by an experienced maintenance technician. For critical machines, a special working group, dedicated to maintenance methods and production, can be created. The outcome of this phase is the agreed machine standards, which are also the best evidence for the successful implementation of autonomous maintenance at a plant.   These standards are described using One Point Lessons or very visual photo illustrations where text is kept to a minimum. 4. Inspection and Monitoring Basic machine inspections are frequently overlooked in many manufacturing/processing plants. This doesn’t have to be the case, since the implementation of equipment inspection is not hard to do. The machine operators can successfully perform the following simple tasks: Checking lubrication levels; Locating leaks; Tightening loose bolts, fittings Identifying possible mechanical problems such as wear, wobble, change in the sound of a moving assembly, the feel of overheating motors, appearance of cracks in moving assemblies. Make mechanical adjustments, check belt tension, level of air /water/hydraulic/steam pressure used by the machine, check mechanical position settings, operation of micro switches and sensors. Again, use well illustrated One Point Lessons 5. Finalize Standards The last step for a successful implementation of autonomous maintenance is to finalize all provisional standards and establish a process for autonomous maintenance. Have any questions? Please reach out >
AUTONOMOUS MAINTENANCE content media
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EAMS Global
Oct 22, 2018
In Maintenance Software
Defining Maintenance Maintenance can be defined as: “The combination of alltechnicaland associated administrativeand system activitiesintended toretainan item in, or restore it to, a state in which it can perform its required function”. This definition infers the following: Maintenance has both a technology perspective (i.e. focus on items of plant and equipment) as well as a management perspective (i.e. focus on the organisation and management thereof). Maintenance focuses on items of plant and equipment in order to ensure that it performs a required function (i.e. the driver of maintenance is the function to be performed, not the plant and equipment itself). This forms the foundation of a preventive and reliability centered maintenance planning approach. Maintenance deals with both preventing and correcting any condition that could result in downgrading the function to be performed. Finding the appropriate balance between such preventive and corrective work is key to optimising plant and equipment lifecycle cost and profitability. The challenge to the maintenance function is therefore to understand both the equipment to be managed and as well as how to manage these in a way that will result in maximum value to the company. What is a CMMS Computerized maintenance management system (CMMS), is a software package that maintains a computer database of information about an organization's maintenance operations. This information is intended to help maintenance workers do their jobs more effectively (for example, determining which machines require maintenance and which storerooms contain the spare parts they need) and to help management make informed decisions (for example, calculating the cost of machine breakdown repair versus preventive maintenance for each machine, leading to better allocation of resources). CMMS data may also be used to verify regulatory compliance. To properly control the maintenance of a facility, information is required to analyse what is occurring. Manually this requires a tremendous amount of effort and time. A CMMS also allows for record keeping and tracking completed and assigned tasks in a timely and cost-effective manner. In recognition of this, companies are widely using CMMS systems to better control and organize their maintenance departments and tasks. A CMMS offers multiple core maintenance functionalities. It is not limited to manufacturing but expands to facilities, utilities, fleet, hospitals, sports arenas and more where any type of equipment/assets are subject to repair and need maintenance. With improved technology and increasing competition, more and more companies are switching to CMMS vs using manual methods to track and organize information. The different functional components of a CMMS include but are not limited to: Equipment/Asset data management through control of the Asset Register Service Request and Work order system Corrective and Preventive Maintenance through the Work Order and Planning functionality Labour and Service Provider Management through the Work Order functionality Scheduling/Planning functionality MRO Parts Inventory Control and Stores Management Purchasing and Vendor Management Budgeting and Cost Tracking Performance Reporting CMMS packages may be used by any organization that must perform maintenance on equipment, assets and property. Some CMMS products focus on particular industry sectors (e.g. the maintenance of vehicle fleets or health care facilities). Other products aim to be more general. CMMS packages can produce status reports and documents giving details or summaries of maintenance activities. The more sophisticated the package, the more extensive analysis facilities have available. Many CMMS packages can be either web-based, meaning they are hosted by the company selling the product on an outside server, or LAN based, meaning that the company buying the software hosts the product on its own server. Maintenance Cycle The maintenance cycle below provides a graphical overview of the overall maintenance process, including: planning, scheduling, execution, performance assessment and ongoing improvement: Key steps in the above cycle include: Asset Management Policy, Objectives and Strategy: This process happens outside of the CMMS, it considers the maintenance Business and Statutory requirements and comes up with an Asset Management Policy. This Policy is documented in a Standards Manual, this standards manual is the master document that outlines how the CMMS system will be setup and utilised to perform the company maintenance requirements. Plan Work: Plan Work considers the asset condition and, based on the Asset Management Policy, determines which assets requires Preventive Maintenance, and how often (frequency) such maintenance is required. The Frequency is determined by the asset condition and criticality. Planned Maintenance Tasks: This includes activities such as Preventive and Condition Based Maintenance Tasks as well as scheduled events such as Maintenance Projects. The standard work plans/ instructions, maintenance frequencies and schedules are carried out in the CMMS. These tasks are typically of a repetitive nature and once loaded into the CMMS they can be scheduled once and will automatically reschedule and assign resources on an ongoing basis. Corrective Maintenance Task and User Requests: This includes planned as well as unplanned (emergency) corrective maintenance activities events as well as ad hoc service requests. These activities are recorded and managed via the CMMS to ensure effective response time and allocation of work. These tasks are not fixed and are determined by the condition of the asset or equipment. Schedule Work: This process is carried out in the CMMS and refers to the allocation of resources such as Personnel, Materials, Tools or Equipment to a Job card. Such allocation of work is typically performed by a Maintenance Planner. Modern mobile-enabled CMMS systems can push the work directly to field technicians in real time without the need to generate and issue paper based Work Orders. Execute Work: This process is carried outside of the CMMS and refers to the actual physical work/ maintenance that is carried out. Feedback: There are 2 steps in the feedback process. The first step happens outside the CMMS and refers to the Technician completing the job card with feedback of the parts used, work done etc. The second step happens inside the CMMS and refers to the Planner capturing the feedback from the job card into the CMMS. Modern mobile-enabled CMMS systems now allows the Maintenance technicians to directly capture their feedback in the CMMS system, thereby reducing unnecessary administrative work. Reporting: This is the power behind a CMMS system and refers to the reporting capabilities of the CMMS. All data that is captured from Job cards and the information that lies on the asset can be crossed references to build reports. Analyse: This is the process of analysing the reports generated by the CMMS and benchmarking this data to performance standards and best practices. This gives a platform for improvements to be made. Improve: Refers to the improvements made to the Plan Work that has been identified in the Analyse phase. Download the full white paper here > More on Fiix CMMS > Please feel free to reach out to us should you have any questions or queries at: sales@eams-usa.com | sales@eamsafrica.com
CMMS in context of the maintenance cycle content media
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EAMS Global
Oct 16, 2018
In Wireless Monitoring
The Oil Condition Monitoring Sensor by Gill Sensors was designed to detect particles of metal in oil that have originated from worn or broken machinery such as gears. It attracts and collects this debris and records the amount collected. This serves as an early warning of impending mechanical failure. The active part of the Oil Debris Sensor is the probe. This part is immersed in the oil of the equipment being monitored. It has two sensing elements, a magnetic element at the head of the probe which detects ferrous material (debris) and a dielectric element at the foot of the probe which detects the presence of oil. By connecting a 0-20mA ioX-Connect meter to the Oil Debris Sensor we are able to provide continuous real-time monitoring of ferrous debris that the sensor captures from the lubricating oil and display that on our ioX-Connect Online Sensor Portal. Ferrous particles are deposited into the oil from gears, bearings and other metallic contacting surfaces. The presence of excessive ferrous debris provides an indication that an overload condition, lubricant contamination, lubricant degradation or lack of lubricant volume has caused the bearings and/or gears to begin to break down. Various alarms/ notification triggers can be set using the ioX-Connect Online Sensor Portal to notify you and your staff via text or email the moment excessive ferrous debris is detected in the equipment being monitored. "Please note, the above figure is just an example and not based on actual readings taken" Ferrous particles take two forms. Firstly there are fine powder deposits (the red line in the above figure) which are the very early stages of wear. These are followed by larger chip or flakes (the blue line in the example figure) which indicate more severe system degradation. The Oil Condition Monitoring Sensor can distinguish between these particles and reports them as “Fine Metal %” and “Coarse Metal %” on 2 separate channels. The reporting of these features can provide an early indication of potential breakdowns and is key to implementing effective planned preventative maintenance. The Oil Condition Monitoring Sensor attracts ferrous debris within the oil by means of a permanent magnet, non-ferrous debris may be deposited on the Sensor by other means, for example by mounting the sensor in a location where debris would normally gather. Electronics within the Oil Condition Monitoring Sensor detect the presence and type of debris, quantifying it as ‘fine’ (powdered) or ‘coarse’ (chippings) and reports a signal associated with the volume of each type of debris. Other functions of the sensor measure the temperature and the dielectric of the oil for the purpose of detecting a significant change in the dielectric value. Such changes will occur if the oil is not present (oil leak) or if the water content in the oil is significant. We have tapped into the very useful (and we believe necessary) additional channel offered by the Oil Condition Monitoring Sensor called the Oil Condition/ Status Channel that records the oil status based on upper and lower set threshold limits as well as water contamination detected in the monitored lubricant. Upper and lower limit thresholds are set during sensor installation by immersing the sensor in new/ clean oil with no water or debris contamination and setting the status as good. Subsequently the sensor is then also immersed in oil that contains at least 10% water or a percentage fine/ coarse metal particles and the status is set as poor. Once the sensor is installed in an equipment item, we are then able to also track the lubricant based on these two upper and lower limits and continuously report on the oil status as well as notify users when these thresholds are exceeded or close to being exceeded. "Please note, the above figure is just an example and not based on actual readings taken" There are three product variants, all of which use the same sensing probe: Analogue Sensors: 4-20mA output channels 0-10V output channels Digital Sensor (Advanced set-up and not recommended) CAN J1939 You might also want to check out our use case for this sensor that can be found on our downloads page (under use cases) / wireless monitoring page at the bottom of the page which also includes an overview video of the oil debris sensor. If you would like more information on these sensors and how we can help you get started, please reach out to us and we will gladly assist you: Contact Us
Online Oil Condition Monitoring content media
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EAMS Global
Oct 10, 2018
In Maintenance Strategies
What is risk-based maintenance? Definition Risk-based maintenance (RBM) prioritizes maintenance resources toward assets that carry the most risk if they were to fail. It is a methodology for determining the most economical use of maintenance resources. This is done so that the maintenance effort across a facility is optimized to minimize any risk of a failure. A risk-based maintenance strategy is based on two main phases: Risk assessment Maintenance planning based on the risk The maintenance type and frequency are prioritized based on the risk of failure. Assets that have a greater risk and consequence of failure are maintained and monitored more frequently. Assets that carry a lower risk are subjected to less stringent maintenance programs. Implementing a risk-based maintenance process means that the total risk of failure is minimized across the facility in the most economical way. ​ The monitoring and maintenance programs for high risk assets are typically condition-based maintenance programs. Suitable applications Risk-based maintenance is a suitable strategy for any maintenance plan. As a methodology, it provides a systematic approach to determine the most appropriate asset maintenance plans. Upon implementation of these maintenance plans, the risk of asset failure will be low. Risk-based Maintenance Framework The risk-based maintenance framework is applied to each system in a facility. A system, for example, may be a high-pressure vessel. That system will have neighbouring systems that pass fluid to and from the vessel. The likely failure modes of the system are first determined. Then, a typical risk-based maintenance framework is applied to each risk. The framework is shown in the diagram. Collect Data For each identified risk, data needs to be collected. This includes information about the risk, its general consequences and the general methods used to mitigate and predict the risk. Risk Evaluation At the risk evaluation stage, both the probability of the risk and the consequence of the risk are quantified in the context of the facility under consideration. Rank Risks With the risk evaluation complete, the probability and consequence are combined to determine the total risk. This total risk is ranked against pre-determined levels of risk. As a result, the risk is either acceptable or unacceptable. Create an Inspection Plan If the risk is unacceptable, a plan to inspect the system using a condition monitoring approach is determined. Or, if it is more cost appropriate, and technically feasible a preventative maintenance program might be selected. Propose Mitigation Measures At this stage the proposal for mitigating the risk, using the condition monitoring and maintenance approach, is prepared. Re-assessment Finally, the proposal is evaluated against other factors – such as legal and regulatory requirements. If the proposal’s needs are not met, then the process starts again. Otherwise, the maintenance proposal is put into place. How to assess the risk Assessing the risk of failure is one of the most important aspects of risk based maintenance. The more accurately this is done, the better the risk based maintenance outcomes will be. ​ There is no one standard method for assessing risk. Qualitative, semi-quantitative and quantitative approaches are used to determine the possible risks that exist. To estimate the likelihood of these risks, the methods that are used include deterministic, and probabilistic approaches. 62 different approaches to assessing risk are described in Tixier (2002). The most appropriate approach will depend on the data that is available to evaluate each risk. Visit our Risk Based Strategy Development Consulting page for more information on risk management services we offer Further reading:​ Arunraj, N.S. & Maiti, J., 2007. Risk-based maintenance—Techniques and applications. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 142(3), pp.653–661. Khan, F.I. & Haddara, M.M., 2003. Risk-based maintenance (RBM): a quantitative approach for maintenance/inspection scheduling and planning. Journal of Loss Prevention in the Process Industries, 16(6), pp.561–573. Sakai, S., 2010. Risk-Based Maintenance. JR East Technical Review, 17, pp.1–4. Tixier, J. et al., 2002. Review of 62 risk analysis methodologies of industrial plants. Journal of Loss Prevention in the Process Industries, 15(4), pp.291–303.
Risk-based Maintenance (RBM) content media
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EAMS Global
Oct 10, 2018
In Maintenance Strategies
What is reliability centered maintenance? Definition Reliability centered maintenance (RCM) is a corporate-level maintenance strategy that is implemented to optimize the maintenance program of a company or facility. The final result of an RCM program is the implementation of a specific maintenance strategy on each of the assets of the facility. The maintenance strategies are optimized so that the productivity of the plant is maintained using cost-effective maintenance techniques. There are four principles that are critical for an reliability centered maintenance program: The primary objective is to preserve system function Identify failure modes that can affect the system function Prioritize the failure modes Select applicable and effective tasks to control the failure modes 7 questions that need to be asked for RCM An effective reliability centered maintenance implementation examines the facility as a series of functional systems, each of which has inputs and outputs contributing to the success of the facility. It is the reliability, rather than the functionality, of these systems that are considered. The SAE JA1011 has a set of minimum criteria before a maintenance strategy can be called RCM (Gulati). The seven questions that need to be asked for each asset are: What are the functions and desired performance standards of each asset? How can each asset fail to fulfill its functions? What are the failure modes for each functional failure? What causes each of the failure modes? What are the consequences of each failure? What can and/or should be done to predict or prevent each failure? What should be done if a suitable proactive task cannot be determined? Want to learn more about key performance indicators (KPIs) for maintenance excellence? Read our "Advanced CMMS Metrics" eBook to find out how you can measure them with your CMMS software. > Go To Downloads Page Hit your targets with RCM Reliability-centered maintenance identifies the functions of the company that are most critical and then seeks to optimize their maintenance strategies to minimize system failures to ultimately increase equipment reliability and availability. The most critical assets are those that are likely to fail often or have large consequences of failure. With this maintenance strategy, possible failure modes and their consequences are identified; all while the function of the equipment is considered. Cost-effective maintenance techniques that minimize the possibility of failure can then be determined. The most effective techniques are then adopted to improve the reliability of the facility as a whole. Advantages Implementing RCM increases equipment availability, and reduces maintenance and resource costs. Jardine and Tsang give an example of a utility company who reduced maintenance costs by up to 40% Disadvantages RCM does not readily consider the total cost of owning and maintaining an asset. Additional costs of ownership, like those considered in evidence-based maintenance, are not considered, and are therefore not factored into the maintenance considerations. The 7 steps for implementing reliability centered maintenance There are several different methods for implementing reliability centered maintenance that are recommended, summarized in the following 7 steps. Step 1: Selection of equipment for RCM analysis The first step is to select the piece of equipment for reliability centered maintenance analysis. The equipment selected should be critical, in terms of its effect on operations, its previous costs of repair and previous costs of preventative maintenance. Step 2: Define the boundaries and function of the systems that contain the selected equipment ​The equipment belongs to a system that performs a crucial function. The system can be large or small, but the function of the system, and its inputs and outputs, should be known. For example, the function of a conveyor belt system is to transport goods. Its inputs are the goods and mechanical energy powering the belt, while its outputs are the goods at the other end. In this case, the electric motor supplying the mechanical energy would be considered as part of a different system. Step 3: Define the ways that the system can fail (failure modes) ​In step 3 the objective is to list all of the ways that the function of the system can fail. For example, the conveyor belt may fail by being unable to transport the goods from one end to the other, or perhaps it does not transport the goods quickly enough. Step 4: Identify the root causes of the failure modes With the help of operators, experienced technicians, RCM experts and equipment experts, the root causes of each of the failure modes can be identified. Root causes for failure of the conveyor could include a lack of lubrication on the rollers, a failure of a bearing, or a loosened belt. Step 5: Assess the effects of failure In this step the effects of each failure mode are considered. Equipment failures may affect safety, operations and other equipment. Criticality of each of these failure modes can also be considered. There are various recommended techniques that are used to give this step a systematic approach. These include: Failure, mode and effects analysis (FMEA) Failure, mode, effect and criticality analysis Hazard and operability studies (HAZOPS) Fault tree analysis (FTA) Risk-based inspection (RBI) The most important failure modes will be determined at the conclusion of this systematic analysis. Ask yourself questions such as “Does this failure mode have safety implications?”, and “Does this failure mode result in a full or partial outage of operations?”. Your answer is the most important failure modes that should be prioritized for further analysis. Importantly, the failure modes that are retained include only those that have a real probability of occurring under realistic operating conditions. Step 6: Select a maintenance tactic for each failure mode At this step, the most appropriate maintenance tactic for each failure mode is determined. The maintenance tactic that is selected must be technically and economically feasible. Condition-based maintenance is selected when it is technically and economically feasible to detect the onset of the failure mode. Time or usage-based preventative maintenance is selected when it is technically and economically feasible to reduce the risk of failure using this method. For failure modes that do not have satisfactory condition based maintenance or preventative maintenance options, then a redesign of the system to eliminate or modify the failure mode should be considered. Failure modes that were not identified as being critical in Step 6 may, at this stage, be identified as good candidates for a run-to-failure maintenance schedule. Step 7: Implement and then regularly review the maintenance tactic selected ​Importantly, the RCM methodology will only be useful if its maintenance recommendations are put into practice. When that has been done, it is important that the recommendations are constantly reviewed and renewed as additional information is found. Speak to us if you need help setting up a RCM program at your operation
Reliability Centered Maintenance (RCM) content media
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25
EAMS Global
Oct 10, 2018
In Maintenance Strategies
What is reactive maintenance? Reactive maintenance (also known as “breakdown maintenance”) are repairs that are done when equipment has already broken down. Reactive maintenance focuses on restoring the equipment to its normal operating condition. The broken-down equipment is returned to working within service specifications by replacing or repairing faulty parts and components. Emergency repairs cost 3 to 9 times more than planned repairs, so maintenance plans that rely on on reactive maintenance are generally the most expensive. Breakdown maintenance is so expensive because shutdowns happen during production runs (instead of pre-scheduled maintenance shutdowns during downtimes); because expedited shipping for spare parts costs much more than regular shipping; and because maintenance staff is often forced to work overtime to repair machinery. Advantages of Reactive Maintenance​ Lower initial costs – As your systems are new, they require little maintenance so you save on parts and emergency labour. Requires fewer staff – Complex repairs tend to be outsourced reducing the need for internal staff. No planning needed – Technicians repair equipment when it fails. As fails are unpredictable, no time is spent planning the repairs. Disadvantages of Reactive Maintenance Due to the unpredictable nature of reactive maintenance, there are a number of disadvantages: Difficult to control budgets – As equipment failures can be unpredictable, labour and spare parts may not be readily available so organizations may end up paying a premium for emergency parts shipping, travel time and out of hours support. Shorter life expectancy of assets – Reactive maintenance does not keep the systems running in optimal “as new” condition. Over time, systems that have been maintained deteriorate faster so don’t maximize their initial capital cost investment. Safety issues – When work is scheduled, technicians have time to review the standard procedures and safety requirements to complete the job correctly. Technicians tend to take more risks when maintenance work is reactive as they are under pressure to get systems running without delay. Time consuming – Reactive repairs tend to take longer due to a number of factors including time to diagnose, travel time, time to pull parts from stores or emergency order, time to pull correct manuals and schematics etc. Sporadic equipment downtime – planned maintenance can be written into the production schedule whereas unplanned repairs can happen anytime. Also, there is the uncertainty around the length of delay due to the repair. Inefficient use of resources – Technicians spend time running around looking for the correct manuals and schematics, ordering the right parts etc trying to diagnose and fix the issue. Interferes with planned work – Emergency repairs are usually prioritized at the expense of planned work. Planned work may be pushed or cancelled completely. Collateral Damage – A minor issue could quickly into a major system repair. If your engine is low on oil, it could result in a completely seized engine. I personally had a water leak that spilt onto an electronics cabinet, causing tens of thousands of dollars in damaged electronic boards. Indirect costs – Unplanned downtime can lead to late orders if equipment cannot be returned to production in time. This can damage reputations and impact revenues. Repeat issues – Reactive maintenance does the bare minimum to get the system up and running again. If not repaired correctly, the issue could reoccur and cause more downtime. Higher energy costs – If you don’t service your car, it burns more fuel! When equipment is not properly maintained, it uses more energy. Doing simple things like greasing moving parts or changing filters can reduce energy consumption by 15%. When Should Reactive Maintenance Be Used? Reactive maintenance should only be performed on components that are inexpensive, easy to replace, where the failure does not cause collateral damage in the system or where the cost of reactive maintenance is not greater than preventative maintenance. Reactive maintenance is also ideal for business that cannot plan work due to the nature of the industry. An example would be satellite communications. It is too costly to send technicians into space to perform regular preventive maintenance. Reactive maintenance is present in all maintenance strategies because equipment failure can’t be perfectly predicted. Two industry “rules of thumb” say that you should aim for only 20% of your maintenance time to be devoted to reactive maintenance, and that in reality teams spend about 45% of their time doing reactive maintenance. A 2008 maintenance study out of the University of Tennessee paints a rosier picture: out of 217 North American companies, the average company spent only 34% of its maintenance time doing reactive maintenance.
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72
EAMS Global
Oct 10, 2018
In Maintenance Strategies
What is predictive maintenance (PdM)? Definition The aim of predictive maintenance is first to predict when equipment failure might occur, and secondly, to prevent occurrence of the failure by performing maintenance. Monitoring for future failure allows maintenance to be planned before the failure occurs. Ideally, predictive maintenance allows the maintenance frequency to be as low as possible to prevent unplanned reactive maintenance, without incurring costs associated with doing too much preventative maintenance. Predicting failure can be done with one of many techniques. The chosen technique must be effective at predicting failure and also provide sufficient warning time for upcoming maintenance. Some techniques include vibration analysis, oil analysis, thermal imaging, and equipment observation. These are described in detail in condition based maintenance page. Choosing the correct technique for performing condition monitoring is an important consideration that is best done in consultation with equipment manufacturers and condition monitoring experts. When predictive maintenance is working effectively as a maintenance strategy, maintenance is only performed on machines when it is required. That is, just before failure is likely to occur. This brings several cost savings: minimizing the time the equipment is being maintained minimizing the production hours lost to maintenance, and minimizing the cost of spare parts and supplies. These cost savings come at a price, however. Some condition monitoring techniques are expensive and require specialist and experienced personnel for data analysis to be effective. Suitable applications Applications that are suitable for predictive maintenance include those that: have a critical operational function have failure modes that can be cost-effectively predicted with regular monitoring Unsuitable applications Unsuitable applications for predictive maintenance include those that: do not serve a critical function do not have a failure mode that can be cost-effectively predicted Advantages of predictive maintenance Compared with preventative maintenance, predictive maintenance: ensures that a piece of equipment requiring maintenance is only shut down right before imminent failure. This reduces the total time and cost spent maintaining equipment. Disadvantages of predictive maintenance Compared with preventative maintenance, the cost of the condition monitoring equipment needed for predictive maintenance is often high. The skill level and experience required to accurately interpret condition monitoring data is also high. Combined, these can mean that condition monitoring has a high upfront cost. Some companies engage condition monitoring contractors to minimize the upfront costs of a condition monitoring program. Not all assets have failures that may be more cost-effectively maintained using preventative maintenance or a run-to-failure maintenance strategy. Judgment should be exercised when deciding if predictive maintenance is best for a particular asset. Techniques such as reliability centered maintenance provide a systematic method for determining if predictive maintenance is a good choice as an asset maintenance strategy for the particular asset of interest. Check out our wireless monitoring solution to help you on the road to real predictive maintenance.
Predictive Maintenance content media
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22
EAMS Global
Oct 10, 2018
In Maintenance Strategies
What is preventative maintenance (PM)? Definition Preventative maintenance (or preventive maintenance) is maintenance that is regularly performed on a piece of equipment to lessen the likelihood of it failing. Preventative maintenance is performed while the equipment is still working, so that it does not break down unexpectedly. Preventative maintenance is planned so that any required resources are available. The maintenance is scheduled based on a time or usage trigger. A typical example of an asset with a time based preventative maintenance schedule is an air-conditioner which is serviced every year, before summer. A typical example of an asset with a usage based preventative maintenance schedule is a motor-vehicle which might be scheduled for service every 10,000km. Preventative maintenance is more complex to coordinate than run-to-failure maintenance because the maintenance schedule must be planned. Preventative maintenance is less complex to coordinate than predictive maintenance because monitoring strategies do not have to be planned nor the results interpreted. ​Suitable applications Assets suitable for preventative maintenance include those that: have a critical operational function have failure modes that can be prevented (and not increased) with regular maintenance have a likelihood of failure that increases with time or use Unsuitable applications Unsuitable applications for preventative maintenance include those that: have random failures that are unrelated to maintenance (such as circuit boards) do not serve a critical function Advantages of preventative maintenance Advantages compared with less complex strategies Planning is the biggest advantage of preventative maintenance over less complex strategies. Unplanned , reactive maintenance has many overhead costs that can be avoided during the planning process. The cost of unplanned maintenance includes lost production, higher costs for parts and shipping, as well as time lost responding to emergencies and diagnosing faults while equipment is not working. Unplanned maintenance typically costs three to nine times more than planned maintenance. When maintenance is planned, each of these costs can be reduced. Equipment can be shut down to coincide with production downtime. Prior to the shutdown, any required parts, supplies and personnel can be gathered to minimize the time taken for a repair. These measures decrease the total cost of the maintenance. Safety is also improved because equipment breaks down less often than in less complex strategies. Advantages compared with more complex strategies ​Preventative maintenance does not require condition-based monitoring. This eliminates the need (and cost) to conduct and interpret condition monitoring data and act on the results of that interpretation. It also eliminates the need to own and use condition monitoring equipment. Disadvantages of preventative maintenance Disadvantages compared with less complex strategies Unlike reactive maintenance, preventative maintenance requires maintenance planning. This requires an investment in time and resources that is not required with less complex maintenance strategies. Maintenance may occur too often with a preventative maintenance strategy. Unless, and until the maintenance frequencies are optimized for minimum maintenance, too much or too little preventative maintenance will occur. Disadvantages compared with more complex strategies The frequency of preventative maintenance is most likely to be too high. This frequency can be lowered, without sacrificing reliability when condition monitoring and analysis is used. The decrease in maintenance frequency is offset by the additional costs associated with conducting the condition monitoring.
Preventative Maintenance content media
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8
EAMS Global
Oct 10, 2018
In Physical Asset Management
1) Asset hierarchy Assets in your CMMS are arranged in a hierarchal structure, kind of like folders and files are laid out on your computer. This gives an intuitive, visual layout to the assets in the CMMS, which also corresponds to the way they are laid out in your facility.  This way, even people who aren’t trained on how to use the software are able to find the asset they’re looking for, just by drilling down into the asset hierarchy. 2) Asset categories When equipment (or other assets) are entered into the system, users can identify an asset category for that piece of equipment in addition to a physical location.  This allows the user two ways of filtering assets: 1) by location 2) by the asset category, or what “type” of asset it is. For instance, if you’re trying to locate a piece of HVAC machinery, say “Twin Fan Set”,  you can drill down via Main Facility > Roof > Twin Fan Set. About 3 clicks, and simple to do. Or, you can select “HVAC” from the list of Asset categories, and choose/search the asset this way. 3) Program your own asset tag/code The importance of having a good asset labelling convention is discussed here. If you have several assets with the same name, you need a quick way to distinguish them from each other that is a) easy to implement and b) easy for your maintenance staff to interpret.  Fiix allows you to add an asset labelling convention that is separate from the Name of the Asset, (you get both: an Asset Name, and an Asset Code).  Asset codes can be added  manually one at a time, or more than one via the import tool. For multiple asset import, set your CSV file up in excel and use the native excel functionality to increment your asset code. You could also program a convention for all assets you enter into the system via our API but this requires some programming experience. 4) All fields are searchable Obviously you would expect some kind of search for a database program.  What makes Fiix’s search function so helpful, is that it lets you query a number of fields at the same time.  For instance, say I’m trying to find a particular CNC machine out of the 40 or so I have scattered around my Asset Hierarchy.  I can start the search by typing “cnc”, but then narrow it down further by adding more info I know about the machine.  I’ll add a bit from the description, the make, even part of the serial number. What this design does is all for a very flexible process for identifying the asset you’re looking for.  You can drill down into the place it is located, filter by the asset category, distinguish it from similarly named assets with the Asset tag/code, and search all these things simultaneously using the live search.
Four Ways to Organize your Asset Hierarchy and Locate Assets content media
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108
EAMS Global
Oct 09, 2018
In Maintenance Software
What are rotating assets? Be careful, the clue is not in the name! The term “rotating assets” does not signify assets that rotate or spin around. Rotating assets are assets that are swapped in and out of service such as pumps, electronic control boards, engines or robot arms. Work order and move history stay with the asset throughout its lifetime as it is moved throughout the organization. In general, a rotating asset is a unique distinct item with its own unique asset code and serial number and is usually repaired or refurbished rather than replaced. Basically, they are interchangeable and repairable spares. Repairable parts are parts that are deemed worthy of repair, usually by virtue of economic consideration of their repair cost. Example of a rotating asset Your organization has a cooling system with four identical pumps. They also keep one spare pump in stores. Each pump has its own unique ID and serial number. When one pump fails, it is removed and replaced with the pump from stores. The damaged pump is then repaired and returned to the storeroom and made available for the next failure. The work order history and location history travel with the pump throughout its lifetime as it is moved from one place to the next. In Fiix CMMS, stock items are considered consumables and disposed of at the end of their useful life. You cannot track work orders on stock items such as O-rings, seals and gaskets so any rotating assets must be created as an equipment record in your CMMS. What can you do with rotating assets? In Fiix CMMS, rotating assets can move between locations, be assigned to a user in transit, assigned to a business or be cycled to and from inventory to usage. Move the asset to another location – This will become very useful if you have assets that move between different locations or sites. The asset is moved in the hierarchy from one location to another, while documenting all the move data in the asset log Assign it to a user – This is ideal for companies that issue tools or specialized equipment to employees. The tool is checked out to the employee, and remains their responsibility until they check it back into its official storage location in the CMMS. Assign it to a business – If you lend your equipment or tools to a vendor, partner or customer, you can track this transaction on the asset record. Assign it to a work order – In this case, you can assign an asset to a work order, which means the asset is dedicated to this work order until it is returned. If you have specialized tooling, this means other users cannot use it until this work order is closed out. Throughout the lifetime of a rotating asset, work orders and moves are tracked in the log tab of the asset. This ensures you have the full operational, transactional and overhaul history of the asset. How it works The rotating assets feature is available for the enterprise package only. If you have the enterprise CMMS, you can switch on the rotating asset feature for your CMMS in the CMMS Settings -> Rotating Assets tab in your CMMS. In this settings tab, you can also decide which users in the CMMS can use the rotating assets functionality in the CMMS. With the Rotating Assets feature enabled, at the top of each asset record, you’ll notice the Move button in the More dropdown menu. When you click more, you have 4 options: Move the asset to another location Assign it to a user Assign it to a business Assign it to a work order In this example, Sam the supervisor has checked out the spectrum analyzer in his name. He is then responsible for returning the equipment when he is finished. When Sam is finished, he can click the Check Back In button on the asset record to officially return it to its storage location. Move Assets on the Work Order Form In addition, it is now possible to rotate your assets on the work order. Just like on the asset record, the asset can be moved to another location, user, business, or the work order itself. Here’s an example scenario – while tackling a work order, the technician determines an air compressor pump cannot be repaired. The pump must be rebuilt. The technician can simply click the More-> Move Asset button at the top of the work order to rotate the pump out of production and into to the repair shop to be rebuilt. In the pop up screen, they simply fill in the details of the move Alternatively, let’s say the pump is rebuilt but a 3rd party vendor. In this case, the technician would simply move the pump to a business in the move pop up screen. In addition, it is possible to rotate multiple assets on a multi asset work order. When the Move Asset button is clicked at the top of the work order form, all available assets are added to the move pop up window for processing. By adding the asset move functionality on the work order form, it reduces the number of clicks needed to get he job done, and gives the technician more context into what they are doing. In addition, it reduces the chances they’ll get side tracked while navigating through other screens in the CMMS. Drag & drop assets in your asset hierarchy In the following screenshot, I simply drag pump #5 from the storage facility and drop it into the pump room. This action is signifying removing the part from stores and putting it into production. After dragging and dropping the pump, you’ll see the following pop up window, which can be used to fill in some move data such as the reason for the move. You simply repeat the process by moving the damaged pump #4 from production to the storeroom for repair. Hopefully, you now have a good overview of your CMMS’s rotating asset functionality. If not, please feel free to reach out to us at any time.
Fiix - Rotating Assets content media
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26
EAMS Global
Oct 09, 2018
In Maintenance Software
Solving inventory challenges with inventory cycle count Most companies that have to deal with large inventories know the typical struggles: parts get used for maintenance without approval or recording, other parts get shuffled around to another maintenance department that needed them and sometimes parts simply disappear, leaving no clues behind. Managing your inventory with advanced tools like Fiix CMMS is a great way to get your spare parts under control, but even with the best CMMS implementation things can still slip through the cracks. Fiix inventory cycle count to the rescue To address this issue, most companies regularly audit their inventory and reconcile their recorded stocks with what inventory is physically present on their shelves. Fiix is happy to share that we’ve streamlined this process with a new feature called cycle counting. With our inventory cycle count feature you will now be able to easily automate an audit of your stock to ensure your stock levels are always at an optimal level. Not all parts are created equal Fiix understands that not all parts have the same value within your facility. You don’t need to audit your paper clip stock as often you need to audit the spare belts that drive half of your production lines. This is why we’ve introduced the notion of ABC Classification. With the new inventory classification feature you can now easily define whether a part is critical (A), important (B) or less valuable (C). When you trigger a cycle count you can decide which parts to audit based on your customized classifications. For example, your administrator might create a cycle count for those critical A-parts every week, while auditing B-parts every month and C-parts every quarter. Why not take Fiix CMMS for a test drive?
Fiix Feature update: Inventory cycle count content media
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28
EAMS Global
Oct 05, 2018
In Physical Asset Management
Give your maintenance guys a brief verbal description of a repair and they’ll know exactly what you’re talking about. “Which generator unit? The one in the storage room in the sub facility by the tool shelf? Gotcha!” ​ While this kind of informal naming convention works fine for word of mouth, it doesn’t really work when you start putting info into your computerized maintenance management system (CMMS). Locating that generator unit in the sub facility in your CMMS when all your generator units are called “Generator” can be a nightmare. This is a common problem that organizations have when they start using their CMMS for the first time. ​Asset naming conventions can help you find your stuff way faster First things first—an asset naming convention is basically just a way to name your assets in your database so they can be quickly identified. The easiest way to establish a naming convention is to do it right from the beginning, during the CMMS implementation. Even small companies should come up with a standardized naming convention for their assets before they go live with their CMMS. You need to look at the big picture so when your organization grows, or purchases new assets, there won’t be any conflicts and you won’t need to redo any work. Good asset naming conventions should also have a certain level of logic so that everyone who works with the CMMS can easily find what they’re looking for. For example, adding a location component to a mobile asset makes no sense if the asset needs to be renamed every time it moves. Keep in mind that numbers have very little meaning so it is important to minimize their use and maximize the use of character instead. Potential asset labelling convention components: Location: Country, site, building, floor, room, department etc. Usage type: Production, development, testing, research, parts cannibalization etc. Equipment type: Engine, generator, pump, air conditioning unit etc Make/Manufacturer Model/Rev Desirable characteristics: Logical structure: Your technicians should be able to deconstruct the asset labelling convention for meaning. Consistent number of characters: Consistency is important for identification. For example, if you pull a list of your assets from the CMMS for asset 1, asset 2 and asset 12 you will get 1,12,2. If you label them asset 01, 02 and 12, your asset list will be in order. Informational components: Adding characters to the name that help identify the asset means your technicians can locate the assets quickly in the CMMS. Drill down approach: Each component should be a subset of the previous. For example, country, site, building, floor, room… Asset naming example Say we have four plants in four geographical locations around the world. Each plant has multiple buildings. In each building, we have several XLA lasers. This tells us that XLA laser 001 is in building 1 at my US plant. This structure also comes in handy when we want to search the CMMS for old issues on our XLA lasers–we simply type in XLA into the closed work orders search box and we’ll get all the past issues and fixes for XLA lasers. We applied this logic to the generator example above. See how easy it now is to identify that generator: At first glance, technicians might think these asset names look complicated but they will adapt quickly especially if you keep your labels consistent. You will have to define an asset labelling convention that works for your particular facility, but this is a relatively simple task. You’ll be surprised to see how easy it is to abbreviate the identifiers for various assets and create a logical naming convention for your business.
HOW TO SET UP ASSET NAMING CONVENTIONS FOR BETTER MAINTENANCE content media
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437
EAMS Global
Sep 28, 2018
In Maintenance Software
A Computerized Maintenance Management System (CMMS) is a software tool to help manage and track maintenance activities such as scheduled maintenance, work orders, parts inventory, purchasing and projects. The CMMS gives full visibility and control on maintenance operations so everyone can see what’s already been done and what still needs to be done. Dashboard KPI’s help measure current performance against those defined goals. The CMMS also helps maintenance managers get more organized by reducing their dependence on paper, whiteboards and memory by automating many mundane mundane daily activities. A CMMS also helps users identify recurring tasks that need to be done or prioritized, ensuring nothing is overlooked. One of the biggest benefits of a CMMS is increased labor productivity as the system can help plan and track work so technicians can complete their tasks without interruption. With proper planning and tracking, the maintenance team is a lot more organized. More importantly, a CMMS can help an organization become more health and safety compliant in a number of ways. Safety procedures can be included on all job plans ensuring technicians are aware of the risks ensuring the organization is compliant and ready for those audits. Using a CMMS, you can schedule preventive maintenance work orders and get alerted automatically when PM’s are due. You can also see all the work done to an asset in the past so you can optimize maintenance schedules or troubleshoot existing breakdown issues. Why is having a CMMS important? There are countless books written on why a CMMS is so important but the following is a short summary. A CMMS: Will assist the facilities maintenance manager with work reception, planning, control, performance, evaluation, and reporting. Helps extend the life expectancy of assets. Optimizes the use of scarce resources such as manpower, equipment, material, and funds. Automates administrative tasks & digitally store all relevant information for effortless future recall. Helps efficiently tracks proper maintenance, repairs, inspections, installs or upgrades of assets. Eliminates extensive paper trails by automating processes through easy-to-navigate functionalities thus minimizing keystrokes and maximizing productivity. Provides a one-source database for all asset related information. Accurately predict the costs of materials and labor for future projects. Objectives of CMMS Implementation Improve machine availability and reliability by reducing downtime and emergency repairs. Improve operational efficiency and optimize the life-cycle cost of assets. Implement a mission critical business information system without any service disruptions or loss of revenue. Manage cash flow and future costs Be an adaptable organization that provides dependable service at optimum efficiency. Accurately calculate true assets management costs using centralized performance management systems. Efficient integration of software into work processes; increasing labour productivity and reducing maintenance related overtime by eliminating redundancies and duplicate entries. Identify reporting processes, flow and techniques. Understand and analyze maintenance and repair process/trends.
What is a CMMS? content media
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13
EAMS Global
Sep 24, 2018
In Maintenance Strategies
Knowing when to repair or replace equipment A computerized maintenance management system (CMMS) can help you weigh the cost of maintenance against the estimated replacement value of equipment, and help determine whether you should repair or replace equipment that is breaking down and disrupting production. During my time in the plastics industry, the decision to repair was often made reactively following an unscheduled or emergency breakdown. In the panic that ensued, we were emotionally inclined to repair equipment when we should have replaced it. That decision should have been based on numbers, and those numbers largely come from your CMMS—if you’re using it properly. What to factor into the repair or replace calculation The decision to repair or replace equipment should be based on minimizing the total cost of the equipment to the business over its remaining lifetime. Things that factor into the calculation include: Maintenance costs over the remaining service life Impact of the repair on productivity Impact of the repair on product quality Cost of unscheduled downtime Collateral costs of a breakdown (health, safety, environmental, etc.) Equipment decommissioning cost Equipment disposal cost and/or salvage value The cost associated with researching and purchasing a replacement The capital cost of the replacement equipment, including the cost of money The installation and certification cost of the replacement equipment Training cost on the replacement equipment Productivity gain or loss of the replacement equipment Ongoing costs to service the replacement equipment (both in and out of warranty) After objectively analyzing this data, you’ll have a clear understanding of whether you should continue to repair that older piece of equipment, or just buy a more reliable replacement. Do the math, and you may be in for a surprise. Cost to repair We broke down the cost of repairing an existing piece of equipment into three categories: 1. Cost per breakdown Direct cost of repair: Cost of removing the broken part, disposing of it, replacement part cost, and cost of installation and testing. Cost of Lost Production: Lost profits from lost production, cost of scrap materials, and miscellaneous costs. Collateral Cost: Environmental clean-up, occupational health and safety costs, legal costs.​ 2. One-time cost Cost of inventorying spares related to the repair. 3. Ongoing costs Reliability of repair: Impact of repair on product quality and production capacity. Cost to replace We then compared that to the cost of buying a replacement unit, which included: 1. Disposal cost of retired equipment: Decommissioning and disposal cost Salvage value Equipment write-off cost (non-cash) 2. Cost of purchasing and installing a replacement unit: Research time; capital equipment cost and spare parts inventory cost, cost of tying up working capital Installation cost including miscellaneous parts and supplies, inspection and certification costs. Training & safety meetings prior to deployment 3. Lost production during installation and commissioning 4. The replacement unit’s impact on product quality, equipment availability, production capacity, equipment operating costs, and labor costs. 5. Out-of-warranty costs: Cost of repairs, lost production, collateral costs, one-time costs, impact on product quality, and production capacity. Case study For a look at how these calculations work, Fiix ran a repair or replace calculation for a 10-year-old plastic re-grinder with a book value of $26,000 and a remaining service life of 80 months. The direct cost of each repair (removal of damaged parts, disposal, replacement and installation cost) was $4,533. Each time the equipment went down it took two days to get it running, and the resulting net lost profits to the business were $8,200 including scrap and clean-up costs. The company needed to keep one back-up grinder blade (cost $3,240) in stock to ensure the repair could get done within the two day time frame, as agreed to in the maintenance department’s service level agreement with production. The repair would provide 24 months of reliable, trouble-free operation until the next failure but only if production capacity was reduced by 1%. Crunching the numbers, the total cost of continuing to repair the equipment over its service life was a staggering $127,000 – with most of that coming from lost production! Let’s compare that to the replacement cost. A replacement grinder cost $59,800 (including spares) and needed to be leased at a rate of 0.4%/month. The old broken grinder cost $1,190 to decommission and had a salvage value of $12,000. Researching, installing and certifying the replacement grinder and training the staff how to use it cost $12,300 and the total downtime for all this was 12 days. A benefit of the replacement unit was a boost in production capacity of 2%. The unit also ran more efficiently, which saved the company $150/month in utilities and $1,350/month on improved quality and fewer returns. Reliability was also improved by 15%. The new unit needed 0.5 fewer people to run it. During the 36-month manufacturer’s warranty, any breakdowns were handled by the manufacturer including a credit for lost production during downtime, but did not include the cost of scrap, provided that preventive maintenance procedures were followed and could be verified in the CMMS. After the warranty, they estimated the same ongoing repair costs as the old grinder for simplicity but with a longer time to failure due to a 15% improvement in reliability of the replacement unit. When everything was factored in, and the salvage value of the old equipment was realized, the cash cost to the company to replace the old grinder netted out at only $41,500. The numbers show that, in this case, the company could save more than $85,000 over the remaining predicted lifetime of the old broken grinder (80 months) by replacing it with a new one. ​ What’s important to note is that the biggest contributing cost factor in this example is lost production–something many managers don’t adequately factor into the decision to repair or replace. That said, if you have excess equipment availability and can repair the machine with no impact to product delivery, then the decision may actually favour repairing the broken unit. In any case, doing the math is the way to arrive at the best decision for your facility. Where does the CMMS data come in? Well, that depends on what information you’re capturing. With Fiix, you can capture equipment cost, warranty information, cost of repair, cost of parts, estimated time to failure, time to repair, miscellaneous costs associated with the breakdown (like scrap and compliance fines) and even the impact on production capacity if you tie the CMMS into the equipment meter readings via the API. In brief, the CMMS can provide you with the all the data you need to estimate the repair costs over the remaining life of the equipment. ​ You’ll still need to price out a replacement unit and input the manufacturer’s warranty, reliability, and productivity enhancement data–but that’s a simple task and the information can be pulled from the technical specifications. One of the benefits of using our cloud-based multi-tenant maintenance and asset management software is that even data and pricing on replacement equipment is available right in the CMMS, via a built-in marketplace. This resource has millions of parts, supplies and equipment with technical specs, pricing, how-to videos, white papers, manuals and tools for maintenance professionals.
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11
EAMS Global
Sep 24, 2018
In Maintenance Strategies
​No maintenance strategy? Not having a maintenance strategy is the simplest “strategy” to have for asset maintenance. The absence of a strategy eliminates the need to plan ahead for maintenance. Unplanned, reactive maintenance is the most likely type of maintenance that will occur. Despite the fact that no strategy exists, most types of maintenance tasks are still possible.  For example: Unplanned, reactive maintenance will occur any time the asset breaks down. Preventative maintenance may occur when the operator (or someone else) decides to do it. This may include lubrication or cleaning. However, this maintenance is unstructured and does not occur according to a formalized schedule or due to a trigger. Predictive monitoring may also occur. For example, a bathroom sink may be subject to condition monitoring every time it is used. The user may notice a decrease in flow rate, and initiate preventive repairs for the sink. Suitable Applications A “no maintenance strategy” may be suitable for homes and home workshops. Owned equipment may never have had any planning for maintenance strategy. When the equipment is non-critical and does not pose any safety risk, this strategy may be ideal. Unsuitable Applications A “no maintenance strategy” approach is unsuitable in most other situations. The risk of equipment unavailability, or safety issues should prompt some level of thought about a maintenance strategy. Triggers used for “no maintenance strategy” maintenance Many triggers can be used for this type of “no maintenance strategy” maintenance. These, however, are all characterized by an unstructured and unplanned approach. Breakdown trigger: Breakdown is the most likely trigger for maintenance. If the asset is required and not working, then maintenance will be required. Time trigger: Time may also be used as a trigger. “I haven’t lubricated the machine for a long time” could be a trigger for maintenance. Event trigger: An event could be used. A news report of a fire being caused by a similar asset may trigger a maintenance inspection. Usage trigger: A usage trigger may initiate work. A counter ticking over to a significant milestone (say 100 hours) may initiate maintenance by the user if they want to. Importantly, this would not be pre-planned. Condition trigger: Condition may also be used. The example of the bathroom sink beginning to run slowly is an example of this trigger.
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EAMS Global
Sep 24, 2018
In Maintenance Strategies
Common maintenance strategies Outlined below are the more widely used maintenance strategies, as well as their pros and cons and situations when they are best applied.  Typically we see plants employing either run-to-failure (only fix after a breakdown) or preventive maintenance (on a predetermined schedule).  However, depending on the value of the asset or its criticality in the plant’s operations, we may see this strategy escalated to predictive or even RCM-based maintenance. ​Run to failure (breakdown maintenance) Run to failure maintenance is an acceptable strategy for equipment that is of minimal importance to operations (rarely used or duplicates the function of some other equipment) or has low cost.   Take, for example, a $1,000 belt feeder, whose lifetime value can be extended by 10% by servicing it every 3 months.  How hard are you willing to work to save $100?  For a non-critical piece of machinery, the answer should be “not hard.” ​ Equipment designated as run-to-failure are fixed in the event of a breakdown (by repair, restoration or parts replacement) until it is more feasible to simply order a replacement equipment. Preventative (scheduled) maintenance (PM) This strategy is employed by most companies and almost all small to mid sized companies make exclusive use of it. Preventive maintenance consists of assets being taken offline, inspected at periodic, predetermined intervals and repaired if necessary.  Although it’s a relatively easy strategy to set up and execute, it can prove quite costly in the long run as a majority of the time these inspections are a straightforward pass. ​ It’s recommended that serious attention be given to the efficiency of these schedules.  Annual review of a schedule’s effectiveness in raising overall equipment effectiveness by preventing breakdowns and see if the schedule can be lengthened or swapped out for predictive maintenance is ideal. Predictive maintenance (PdM) PdM is a condition-based approach to asset management. Typically, monitoring equipment is linked to a CMMS, and generates work orders based on some meter reading (PSI, vibration analysis, widgets/hour) gathered by the monitoring device.  It may also be simpler than this, such as visual inspection by operators on the quality or speed at which the equipment is performing. Eg. A conveyor drops below 1000 widgets per hour, trigger an inspection work order. ​ The advantage of predictive maintenance (over PM) is the potential for cost savings from reduced man-hours spent on maintenance, and more insight as to the performance and potential issues arising with the machine. ie: Vibration analysis + visual inspection gives more insight than visual inspection alone. ​Reliability-centered maintenance (RCM) Emerging from the realisation that equipment failure probability is not linear, reliability centered maintenance is an in-depth, highly involved process that seeks to analyze all the possible failure modes for each piece of equipment, and customize a maintenance strategy for each individual machine. The general consensus is that RCM is too sophisticated a technique to be of much practical use.  RCM is therefore reserved for an elite class of organizations that have already mastered the basics – maintenance prevention, basic inspections and predictive maintenance.
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EAMS Global
Sep 24, 2018
In Asset Maintenance Plans
What is planned maintenance? Planned maintenance is planned, documented and scheduled to be completed before a breakdown occurs. This is unlike unplanned maintenance. The process of planning the maintenance makes the tasks more efficient and eliminates the effect of maintenance on the operations of the facility. Planned maintenance can be one of two types: Maintenance can be planned and scheduled (like getting your car services every six months), or planned and unscheduled (like planning to replace a lightbulb whenever it stops working). Scheduled maintenance Also known as preventative maintenance, planned maintenance. Planned maintenance activities are planned with regard to the maintenance tasks and their timing. All of the triggers for scheduled maintenance are used as triggers for this type of maintenance. These include time, usage, event and condition based triggers. Being planned, the resource requirements are known and can be made available in advance. Being scheduled, a time for the maintenance is also known. When this is combined with the resource planning, the resources can be pre-arranged so that they are ready to go as soon as the job can begin. The maintenance may be scheduled with both short and long lead times. Some scheduled maintenance may be planned years in advance, as would be the case for a yearly maintenance schedule, such as one to replace air-conditioner filters every year before summer. Other scheduled maintenances may have shorter lead times. These may be as a result of usage based schedules. For a maintenance technician, this style of maintenance is more efficient than unplanned maintenance because the task is known in advance. As a result, the parts and supplies can be ready to go and other equipment that might make the job site unsafe can be safely shut-down. Consequently, a planned maintenance task can get done faster with the equipment returning to production faster, too. Unscheduled maintenance Also known as run-to-failure maintenance. Planned but unscheduled maintenance occurs in situations where the maintenance plan for an asset is to wait for breakdown before performing maintenance. A common example is waiting for a lightbulb to blow before replacing it. With this style of maintenance the process for performing the maintenance is planned without knowing when it will occur. This means that the resources such as parts, supplies and personnel are ready and available to use so that the repair can be made within a reasonable time. The trigger used for this maintenance type is a breakdown trigger. This type of maintenance can be efficient for a technician when the maintenance has a low impact on production. It means that no extra maintenance resources are wasted on a part that can be replaced on an as-needs basis. For more information see the run-to-failure maintenance information page.
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EAMS Global
Sep 24, 2018
In Asset Maintenance Plans
Unplanned maintenance is also known as: reactive maintenance, corrective maintenance, breakdown maintenance, or run-to-failure maintenance. Unplanned maintenance occurs in any asset maintenance plan and unfortunately is unavoidable.  A common example of this type of maintenance (and the inconvenience that it can cause) is having your car break down on the side of the road, and having to wait for a mechanic to come to repair it. The trigger for this type of maintenance is a breakdown trigger. Problems associated with unplanned maintenance Because this maintenance type is both unplanned and unscheduled this method of performing maintenance activities is highly inefficient. Time needs to be spent investigating and determining the problem as well as determining a maintenance plan to get the equipment fixed quickly. Time is also likely to be spent waiting for parts, supplies or other personnel to complete the maintenance task. This type of maintenance can also be very expensive. Additional costs include time spent waiting, the premium costs that may be spent on fast part orders and shipping, and the possible overtime payments that may be required for additional, or specialised personnel needed to complete the task. In addition, because it is likely that the operation of other parts of the facility will be negatively impacted by the breakdown of the machine in need of repair, the costs of lost production need to be also factored into the cost of this type of maintenance. If no maintenance planning is undertaken then this style of maintenance becomes the default maintenance style. This is because the planned and predictive maintenance styles described later need an investment in planning before they can be successfully utilised. While it is intended that this type of maintenance should be avoided in the planned maintenance strategies such as predictive and preventative maintenance , it is inevitable that, at some stage, a machine will break down and unplanned maintenance of this type will be required. This incurs all of the additional costs associated with this type of maintenance.
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EAMS Global
Sep 24, 2018
In Asset Maintenance Plans
What is Run To Failure Maintenance (RTF)? Definition The simplest maintenance strategy is to execute run to failure maintenance (also known as “run to fail”). In this strategy, assets are deliberately allowed to operate until they break down, at which point reactive maintenance is performed. No maintenance, including preventative maintenance, is performed on the asset up until the failure event. However, a plan is in place for ahead of the failure, so that the asset can be fixed without causing any production issues. Under the run to fail method, it is important to have spare parts and staff on hand to replace the failed part and to maintain equipment availability. This strategy should not be confused with reactive maintenance, because of the active plan to allow the asset to run to failure. This strategy is useful for assets that, on breakdown, pose no safety risks and have minimal effect on production. A common example of run to failure maintenance is the maintenance plan for a general-purpose light bulb. The bulb is allowed to run until it fails. At this time, the plan to fix the asset is carried out. A new light bulb is obtained from stocks and replaced at a convenient time. Advantages Minimal planning – Since maintenance does not need to be scheduled in advance, the planning requirements are very low. Maintenance only needs to happen after breakdown has occurred. Easy to understand – Because of the plan’s simplicity, this system is easy to understand and implement. Disadvantages Unpredictable – Because most asset failures are unpredictable, it is difficult to anticipate when manpower and parts will be needed for repairs. Inconsistent – The intermittent nature of failures means efficient planning of staff and resources can be difficult. Costly – All costs associated with this strategy need to be considered when it is implemented. These costs include production costs and breakdown costs, in addition to direct parts and labour costs associated with performing the maintenance. Inventory costs – The maintenance team needs to hold spare parts in inventory, to accommodate for intermittent failures. Types of Maintenance Plans Unplanned, reactive maintenance is the only type of maintenance task used for the run to failure maintenance strategy. Run-to-failure Maintenance Triggers Asset breakdown is the only trigger used in the run to failure maintenance strategy. If the asset is not working, then maintenance is required. Appropriate Applications for Run-to-failure Maintenance Run to failure maintenance makes sense when the total cost of repairing equipment after breakdown is less than the cost of performing other types of maintenance on the equipment beforehand. For example, let’s say that you have a machine that’s involved in a continuous, 24/7 production process. Shutting it down for monthly maintenance would stop production and create the same disruption as if you had just let it break down (which might happen 1 time a year). In this case, it makes sense to simply repair it when it breaks. Run to fail maintenance requires an understanding of how a machine might break and what the consequences of breakdown are. Run to failure would also be more appropriate for redundant, or non-critical assets (i.e. when you have 40 trucks and 1 rock crusher in a mine, run to failure maintenance might make sense for the trucks but not for the crusher). Inappropriate Applications for Run-to-failure Maintenance Run to failure maintenance is unsuitable for applications where equipment failure creates a safety risk (oil pipes bursting) or where equipment availability is necessary (a bakery where each hour of downtime costs many thousands of dollars). It is also undesirable for assets where total maintenance costs would be reduced with a more proactive approach to maintenance such as preventative or predictive maintenance strategies. How to Impliment Run-to-failure Maintenance Run to failure maintenance may be implemented using many maintenance methods. This strategy can be adequately managed from memory. Other tools can also be used, including paper-based systems, spreadsheets, CMMS and EAM systems. If an entire facility is working on a run to failure strategy (such as a small home office), then CMMS and EAM systems will provide much more functionality than required. For facilities where run to failure is used for some assets and more complex strategies are used for other assets, the CMMS and EAM will allow these different types of maintenance strategies to happen simultaneously. A CMMS can also be useful to track the number of times the asset has been repaired or replaced and associated costs. A good run to failure maintenance strategy will likely require an inventory management tool because of the large number of spares that may be needed for breakdowns.
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